Air-liquid interfaces of aqueous solutions containing ammonium and sulfate: Spectroscopic and molecular
Gopalakrishnan, S.; Jungwirth, P.; Tobias, D. J. etc.,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109  8861 - 8872 (2005)
Investigations of the air-liquid interface of aqueous salt solutions containing ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-) ions were carried out using molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. The molecular dynamics simulations show that the predominant effect Of SO42- ions, which are strongly repelled from the surface, is to increase the thickness of the interfacial region. The vibrational spectra reported are in the O-H stretching region of liquid water. Isotropic Raman and ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopies were used to study the effect of ammonium and sulfate ions on the bulk structure of water, whereas surface sum frequency generation spectroscopy was used to study the effect of these ions on the interfacial structure of water. Analysis of the interfacial and bulk vibrational spectra reveal that aqueous solutions containing SO42- perturb the interfacial water structure differently than the bulk and, consistent with the molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an increase in the thickness of the interfacial region.